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Learn More About Growing Asparagus

Six Things to Know Before You Plant Asparagus

Learning how to grow asparagus is simple. Asparagus is a dependable favorite in the home garden. Plants take 2 or 3 years before they are ready to harvest, but then produce tasty spears for the next 10-15 years. Asparagus stalks increase in circumference and number over time — it definitely gets better with age.

I love picking a fresh spear and handing it to garden visitors during asparagus season. Their eyes light up when they taste freshly-picked asparagus for the first time. This is one vegetable that tastes best straight from the garden. 


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6 TIPS FOR HOW TO GROW ASPARAGUS


How to grow asparagus

1. Understand the process of how to grow asparagus

  • Asparagus roots produce individual stalks above ground. 
  • When the stalks are harvested in the spring, this depletes the energy from the roots. 
  • After a period of harvesting, the stalks are allowed to develop into ferns. 
  • Vigorous and healthy ferns in the summer help ensure a good asparagus harvest the next spring. The photosynthesis that takes place in the ferns throughout the summer replenishes the energy of the depleted roots.
  • The ferns go dormant in winter and turn brown or yellow — at this point, they can be cut back. In cold-winter areas, leave the stalks in place until spring; they help protect the root crowns. 
  • In the spring, shoots appear from the overwintering roots. These stalks grow larger in circumference every year as their life cycle continues.

2. Decide on the best location to plant asparagus

Because asparagus plants produce for several years, they require a dedicated bed for that period of time. Choose a location that gets at least 6-8 hours of sun a day. Avoid windy areas and areas where water puddles.

Use raised beds because asparagus roots become soggy and rot in clay soil. Asparagus needs rich, well-amended soil that is high in phosphate. 

How to grow asparagus


3. Decide whether to plant asparagus seeds or crowns (roots)

Decide whether to plant asparagus seeds or crowns

It’s easiest to establish asparagus by planting 1 to 2 year old crowns (roots). They produce harvestable stalks about a year after planting. 

How to grow Asparagus

Asparagus can also be planted from seed. This method is less expensive but it requires a 2 year (or longer) wait and more care for the emerging seeds. 

How to grow asparagus

You may also find transplants started from seed at your local nursery.

Asparagus is classified as ‘traditional’ or ‘all male’. ‘All male’ varieties, such as Jersey Giant, Jersey Knight, Jersey Supreme, and Marte, often produce larger spears (and more of them) because they do not have to expend energy into seed production like the ‘traditional’ varieties such as Martha Washington and Purple Passion.


4. Plant asparagus correctly

  • Plant in early spring in cold-winter areas. In mild-winter climates, plant in the fall or winter. In the low desert of Arizona, start seeds indoors from August – November. Plant transplants outside from November – January.
  • Prepare the asparagus bed by adding compost and composted manure to create rich soil.  
  • If planting from seed, start seeds in small containers with potting soil or directly in the beds. Sow seeds ½ inch deep. Germination takes about 30 days. Transplant plants to the permanent bed when plants are 3 inches tall.
  • To plant from crowns, dig a 6-inch trench and place dormant roots in it about 12 inches apart. Cover crowns with about 2 inches of soil and gently tamp them down. Continue adding 2 inches of soil every 2 weeks until the trenches are filled with soil and slightly mounded on top.

5. Wait until the asparagus is large enough before harvesting

  • For the first year after planting (two if started from seed), do not cut or harvest any stalks. Allow the stalks to go dormant in the fall, and cut back watering or stop completely. 
  • New spears begin to emerge the following spring, and you can harvest any that are at least ¼ inch in diameter. Let smaller stalks grow through the summer to give energy to the roots.

6. Harvest and enjoy asparagus

  • Harvest spears when they are 6 to 10 inches long, and the tips are firm and tight. Do not harvest spears smaller than ¼ inch thick, and do not harvest the first year. The following year, harvest for 2 weeks. Extend the harvest each year by two weeks until you are harvesting for 6-8 weeks.
  • Pick asparagus every three days, more often in warm weather. Pick asparagus by snapping off at ground level with your thumb and index finger. You can also cut off just below the soil surface with an asparagus knife or other sharp knife. 
  • Asparagus is delicious when eaten fresh in the garden. Eat or preserve it as soon as possible after picking. You can also store stalks upright in a small amount of water in the fridge. 

Timeline for How to Grow Asparagus in the Low Desert of Arizona

JanuaryCut back dry stalks and amend with 2-3 inches of composted manure and a 2-inch layer of wood chips, straw, or compost. Feed lightly with a balanced organic fertilizer.
Early springHarvest stalks that are more than ¼ inch in diameter for 4-6 weeks. Let smaller ones continue to grow.
Late springDo not harvest; allow stalks to grow into ferns. Amend the spent bed with a balanced organic fertilizer, 2-3 inches of composted manure, and a 2-inch layer of wood chips, straw, or compost. 
Summer / FallWater the beds and do not let them dry out. Allow ferns to grow and provide energy for roots.
WinterFerns will begin to turn yellow. Cut back watering and allow the asparagus to go dormant.

If you enjoyed this post about how to grow asparagus, please share it:

How to grow asparagus

Marc Biren

Wednesday 7th of December 2022

Hi Angela, Thanks for all of your wonderful information and videos. I had two 20 gallon pots with 3 to 4 crowns each and they seemed to establish but when I went to transplant them recently all of the roots seem to have rotted. Do you think it was too much water or is it possible that nematodes can do this? I have had similar disappearing roots from horseradish in other beds - the plant is leafy and happy until late summer and when I look for roots a couple months later, no live roots are there. Thanks, Marc

Angela Judd

Thursday 8th of December 2022

Rotting is possible if they are getting too much water and there isn't good drainage.

Gloriah MANDEYA

Tuesday 22nd of November 2022

Hello Thanks for the information. Been enlightened . I am in Harare Zimbabwe. Growing asparagus for the first time from seed. Unfortunately I don't have the name of the variety. I got the seeds from a friend. I planted beginning of the year. From your post it looks like asparagus is spaced too close. Can I transplant at this flowering stage? Or just let them be until the third year and transplant the crowns?

Angela Judd

Monday 28th of November 2022

It's best to wait until they go dormant, if possible, to transplant.

Barbara Marshall

Thursday 21st of April 2022

I know you are located Arizona, do you have any tips for a Northern grower in NY?

Angela Judd

Thursday 21st of April 2022

The same principles will apply, your timing will be a bit different. Check with the local extension office for planting dates. This post may be helpful: https://growinginthegarden.com/when-to-plant-your-garden-how-to-find-a-planting-calendar-for-your-area/

Chris Prestwich

Thursday 9th of September 2021

Can I start asparagus crowns in grow bags or pots (while I rent), then transplant them out at a later date?

Angela Judd

Thursday 9th of September 2021

Yes, that would be fine.

Albert Bartolomeo

Thursday 15th of July 2021

My asparagus has been growing for 4yrs, I stop picking in July.do I leave all of the remaining go to ferns or just some.

Angela Judd

Friday 16th of July 2021

Once you stop harvesting for the season, leave all the remaining spears to develop into ferns. The ferns supply the energy for the roots which will produce next year's crop of asparagus.